Burke LE, et al.

Although mortality for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has declined for several decades, heart disease and stroke continue to be the leading causes of death, disability, and high healthcare costs. Unhealthy behaviors related to CVD risk (eg, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthful eating habits) remain highly prevalent. The high rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); the persistent presence of uncontrolled hypertension; lipid levels not at target; and the ≈18% of adults who continue to smoke cigarettes pose formidable challenges for achieving improved cardiovascular health. It is apparent that the performance of healthful behaviors related to the management of CVD risk factors has become an increasingly important facet of the prevention and management of CVD.

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