Marinella Sommaruga, Elisabetta Angelino, Paola Della Porta, Mara Abatello, Giacomo Baiardo, Gianluigi Balestroni, Ornella Bettinardi, Edward Callus, Chiara Ciracì, Ombretta Omodeo, Claudia Rizza, Paolo Michielin, Marco Ambrosetti, Raffaele Griffo, Roberto F.E. Pedretti, Antonia Pierobon

Recent guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention suggest multimodal behavioral interventions for psychosocial risk factors and referral for psychotherapy in the case of clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety overall. Accordingly, psychologists of the Italian Association for Cardiovascular Prevention, Rehabilitation and Epidemiology (GICR-IACPR) have reviewed the key components of psychological activities in cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to elaborate a position paper on the best practice in routine psychological activities in CPR based on efficacy, effectiveness and sustainability.
The steps followed were: i) a review of the latest international guidelines and position papers; ii) analysis of the evidence-based literature; iii) a qualitative analysis of the psychological services operating in some reference Italian cardiac rehabilitation facilities; iv) classification of the psychological activities in CPR as low or high intensity based on the NICE Guidelines on psychological interventions on anxiety and depression.
We confirm the existence of an association between depression, anxiety, social factors, stress, personality and illness onset/outcome and coronary heart disease. Evidence for an association between depression, social factors and disease outcome emerges particularly for chronic heart failure. Some positive psychological variables (e.g., optimism) are associated
to illness outcome. Evidence is reported on the impact of psychological activities on ‘new’ conditions which are now indicated for cardiac rehabilitation: pulmonary hypertension, grown-up congenital heart, endstage heart failure, implantable cardioverter-defribrillator and mechanical ventricular assist devices, frail and oldest-old patients, and end-oflife care. We also report evidence related to caregivers. The Panel divided evidence-based psychological interventions into: i) low intensity (counseling, psycho-education, self-care, self-management, telemedicine, selfhelp); or ii) high intensity (individual, couples and/or family and group psychotherapy, such as stress management). The results show that psychotherapy is consisting of cognitive-behavioral therapy (mainly), interpersonal therapy, and short term psycho-dinamic therapy.
The current data further refine the working tools available for psychological activities in CPR, giving clear directions about the choice of interventions, which should be evidence-based and have at least a minimum standard. This document provides a comprehensive update on new knowledge and new paths for psychologists working in the CPR settings.

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